How Ornithopters Fly

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Development, theory and practice
of large ornithopter models

The development of ornithopter models of the author is retraced richly illustrated here. But also constructions of other flapping wings are shown. About the bird flight and the development of ornithopters extensive literature may be downloaded here. In addition, various plans of former ornithopter models are provided.

Bilderserie eines fliegenden Ornithopters
Picture series of the model EV7

The method of approach on the flight principle of flapping flight used here works with variable lift distributions on base of the aerodynamics. In this way lift and thrust generation can be calculated at every location of a flapping wing with known profile data. At the same time, in addition to the drive power, also can be determined the required twisting along the entire flapping wing. This is a crucial advantage when building large ornithopter models. The intensive study of the aerodynamics of the ornithopters also changes the traditional conception of bird flight.